What is computer fundamental

What is computer fundamental 

Computer : 

The word computer comes from the word that means to calculate. So we can say that a computer is an electro - mechanical calculating device which takes data, information, and instructions through in out devices, processing it at C P U  and gives out the meaning full result through out put devices. All the activities are completed very enormous speed.
Read : 3 types of computer software 

Full meaning of computer and following works are done by computer 
C- calculate : computer can perform arithmetic & logical calculation.
O- operate : we can operate other machines by using computer.
M- Memory : we can store large amount of information by using computer.
P- Process : we can do repeatation of a work by using computer.
U- Update : We can up-to-date our information. 
T- Transfer : We can transfer our information one place to another. 
E- Edit : We can change our information more effectively.  That means we can correct the spelling, grammar mistakes, paragraph setting etc. 
R- Retrive : We can get feed back of any information from memories any time.
What is computer fundamental

              History & generations

Ever since the man thought of counting, he developed the concept of communication. His initial approach an accounting, data computations and their recording was with help of sticks, pebbles or lines on walls of caves. Then he moved towards counting by using ten finger of his hands, which probably is the basis of present decimal system. 
The earliest computing device   which was used by Egyptians as early as 450 B.C., is ABACUS.   The Chinese version of ABACUS was a bead on wires counting frame, which is still much used in south east Asia, China and Japan.

The first desktop calculating machine, which is capable to perform various arithmetic operations, was developed as early as 1642, which was pioneered by French scientists BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662). This calculating machine mainly consisted of gears and wheels for calculations and this machine could perform only two basic operation i.e. Addition and su traction.
Read : classification of computer 

A German mathematician GOTTFRIED LEIBNITZ worked on improving this machine i.e. Pascals calcutor for performing four basic arithmetic operations (+, -, *, /).
Chales babeg designed the early computer called difference engine in this year 1822. This could produce reliable table. He i proved this machine and come out with a new idea of analytical engine in 1833, which could perform the basic arithmetic functions, which is intended to be completely automatic. This machine used punch cards as inputs output devices for basic input and output. He is called as "FATHER OF COMPUTER".
In 1920,LEONARDO TORES demonstrated a digital calculating machine in Paris.
 The concept of punch cards which was used by BABBAGE  as I/0 media was develop further by HARMAN HOLLERITH  in the year 1889. He is the pounder of present IBM  (international business machine) company.

As a demand for punch cards machines increased, there was inadequacy of these machine for scientific computations and this demand led to the development of Electro mechanical  calculator known as MARK-1, which was the first automatic general purpose digital computer which was able to do three addition per seconds for division. This machine was designed by prof. HOWARD AIKEN of hardware university. This was in 1944.
What is computer fundamental

The first electronic computer, ENIAC ( Electronic Nuberical Integrator and calculator)  was design in 1946. It has capability to perform about 5000 calculations per second.
This was a huge computer which occupied about 1500 Sq.ft and weight about 50 tons.
After ENIAC  the next development was an electronic computer which has based on JOHN VON NEUMANNS  concept of stroked program named as EDVAC ( Electronic discreat variable automatic computer) and this was in 1949.

Almost simultaneously with EDVAC of U. S. A, the EDVAC ( Electronic delay automatic calculator) was developed by British scientists. This machine was capable to do mathematical operations which are executed in matter of a few micro seconds.

The came in 1951 the Comercial version of stored program computer UNIVAC ( universal automatic computer), which was first digital computer. 

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